C is a popular general-purpose computer programming language. If you are new to programming, C is a good choice to start your programming journey.
Standard C programs are portable and efficient. Hence, it is used for creating programs that make-up operating system, databases, applications to create 3D movies and embedded systems where resources are limited.
Operating Systems - Windows, Linux, OSX, Android, iOS
Databases - PostgreSQL, Oracle, MySQL, MS SQL Server
Other Uses- Text Editors, Network drivers, Compilers, Print spoolers
Python is a powerful high-level, object oriented programming language. Python uses an elegant easy to understand syntax. Hence, it is one of the easier language to use. If you want to learn object-oriented programming or programming in general, python is a good choice.
Python is easy to use and has a large standard library. That's why it is used in wide range of applications including web development, scientific and numeric computing, desktop GUIs, and support language for software development.
Web Development - Django, Flask, Plone
Computing - Pandas, SciPy, IPython
Software Development - SCons, Buildbot, Trac
C++ is an object-oriented programming language developed by Bjarne Stroustrup in 1979. Although C++ is a powerful language with imperative and generic programming features, it is not an easy language to learn.
C++ is used for creating softwares which need low latency and high performance. It is widely used to create video games, device drivers, and advance image and video processing engines.
Powerful Softwares - Photoshop, Illustrator, Maya, Autodesk
Operating System - OSX
Database System - MongoDB, MySQL
R is a versatile scripting language and software environment used for data analytics and visualizations. Due to its expressive syntax and easy-to-use interface, it has grown in popularity in recent years.
R programming is used for developing statistical software. Also, R is used for storing, modeling and visualizing data in field such as astronomy, chemistry, drug development, finance and so on.