C Programming Multidimensional Arrays

C programming language allows to create arrays of arrays known as multidimensional arrays. For example:

float a[2][6];

Here, a is an array of two dimension, which is an example of multidimensional array. This array has 2 rows and 6 columns

For better understanding of multidimensional arrays, array elements of above example can be thinked of as below:

 

Working of multidimensional arrays in c programming

Initialization of Multidimensional Arrays

In C, multidimensional arrays can be initialized in different number of ways.

int c[2][3]={{1,3,0}, {-1,5,9}};
                 OR
int c[][3]={{1,3,0}, {-1,5,9}};
                 OR 
int c[2][3]={1,3,0,-1,5,9};

Initialization Of three-dimensional Array

double cprogram[3][2][4]={ 
{{-0.1, 0.22, 0.3, 4.3}, {2.3, 4.7, -0.9, 2}},
 {{0.9, 3.6, 4.5, 4}, {1.2, 2.4, 0.22, -1}},
 {{8.2, 3.12, 34.2, 0.1}, {2.1, 3.2, 4.3, -2.0}} 
};

Suppose there is a multidimensional array arr[i][j][k][m]. Then this array can hold i*j*k*m numbers of data.

Similarly, the array of any dimension can be initialized in C programming.

Example of Multidimensional Array In C

Write a C program to find sum of two matrix of order 2*2 using multidimensional arrays where, elements of matrix are entered by user.


#include <stdio.h>
int main(){
   float a[2][2], b[2][2], c[2][2];
   int i,j;
   printf("Enter the elements of 1st matrix\n");
/* Reading two dimensional Array with the help of two for loop. If there was an array of 'n' dimension, 'n' numbers of loops are needed for inserting data to array.*/   
   for(i=0;i<2;++i)      
       for(j=0;j<2;++j){
       printf("Enter a%d%d: ",i+1,j+1);
       scanf("%f",&a[i][j]);
       }
   printf("Enter the elements of 2nd matrix\n");
   for(i=0;i<2;++i)
       for(j=0;j<2;++j){
       printf("Enter b%d%d: ",i+1,j+1);
       scanf("%f",&b[i][j]);
       }
   for(i=0;i<2;++i)
       for(j=0;j<2;++j){
/* Writing the elements of multidimensional array using loop. */
       c[i][j]=a[i][j]+b[i][j];  /* Sum of corresponding elements of two arrays. */
       }
   printf("\nSum Of Matrix:");
   for(i=0;i<2;++i)
       for(j=0;j<2;++j){
       printf("%.1f\t",c[i][j]);  
           if(j==1)             /* To display matrix sum in order. */
              printf("\n");
      }
return 0;
}

Ouput

Enter the elements of 1st matrix
Enter a11: 2;
Enter a12: 0.5;
Enter a21: -1.1;
Enter a22: 2;
Enter the elements of 2nd matrix
Enter b11: 0.2;
Enter b12: 0;
Enter b21: 0.23;
Enter b22: 23;

Sum Of Matrix:
2.2     0.5
-0.9    25.0