C Programming User-defined functions

You will learn to create user-defined functions in C programming in this tutorial.
C Programming user-defined functions

A function is a block of code that performs a specific task.

C allows programmer to define functions according to their need. These functions are known as user-defined functions. For example:

Suppose, a program related to graphics needs to create a circle and color it depending upon the radius and color from the user. You can create two functions to solve this problem:

  • createCircle() function
  • color() function

Example: User-defined function

Here is a example to add two integers. To perform this task, a user-defined function addNumbers() is defined.

#include <stdio.h>

int addNumbers(int a, int b);         // function prototype

int main()
{
    int n1,n2,sum;

    printf("Enters two numbers: ");
    scanf("%d %d",&n1,&n2);

    sum = addNumbers(n1, n2);        // function call

    printf("sum = %d",sum);

    return 0;
}
int addNumbers(int a,int b)         // function definition   
{
    int result;
    result = a+b;
    return result;                  // return statement
}

Function prototype

A function prototype is simply the declaration of a function that specifies function's name, parameters and return type. It doesn't contain function body.

A function prototype gives information to the compiler that the function may later be used in the program.


Syntax of function prototype

returnType functionName(type1 argument1, type2 argument2,...);

In the above example, int addNumbers(int a, int b); is the function prototype which provides following information to the compiler:

  1. name of the function is add()
  2. return type of the function is int
  3. two arguments of type int are passed to the function

The function prototype is not needed if the user-defined function is defined before the main() function.

Calling a function

Control of the program is transferred to the user-defined function by calling it.


Syntax of function call

functionName(argument1, argument2, ...);

In the above example, function call is made using addNumbers(n1,n2); statement from inside the main().

Function definition

Function definition contains the block of code to perform a specific task.


Syntax of function definition

returnType functionName(type1 argument1, type2 argument2, ...)
{
    //body of the function
}

When a function is called, the control of the program is transferred to the function definition. And, the compiler starts executing the codes inside the body of a function.

Passing arguments to a function

In programming, argument refers to the variable passed to the function. In the above example, two variables n1 and n2 are passed during function call.

The parameters a and b accepts the passed arguments in the function definition. These arguments are called formal parameters of the function.

Passing arguments to a function

The type of arguments passed to a function and the formal parameters must match, otherwise the compiler throws error.

If n1 is of char type, a also should be of char type. If n2 is of float type, variable b also should be of float type.

A function can also be called without passing an argument.

Return Statement

The return statement terminates the execution of a function and returns a value to the calling function. The program control is transferred to the calling function after return statement.

In the above example, the value of variable result is returned to the variable sum in the main() function.

Return statement of a function


Syntax of return statement

return (expression);     

For example,

return a;
return (a+b);

The type of value returned from the function and the return type specified in function prototype and function definition must match.

Visit this page to learn more on passing arguments and returning value from a function.