C User-defined functions

A function is a block of code that performs a specific task.

C allows you to define functions according to your need. These functions are known as user-defined functions. For example:

Suppose, you need to create a circle and color it depending upon the radius and color. You can create two functions to solve this problem:

  • createCircle() function
  • color() function

Example: User-defined function

Here is an example to add two integers. To perform this task, we have created an user-defined addNumbers().

#include <stdio.h>
int addNumbers(int a, int b);         // function prototype

int main()
    int n1,n2,sum;

    printf("Enters two numbers: ");
    scanf("%d %d",&n1,&n2);

    sum = addNumbers(n1, n2);        // function call
    printf("sum = %d",sum);

    return 0;

int addNumbers(int a, int b)         // function definition   
    int result;
    result = a+b;
    return result;                  // return statement

Function prototype

A function prototype is simply the declaration of a function that specifies function's name, parameters and return type. It doesn't contain function body.

A function prototype gives information to the compiler that the function may later be used in the program.

Syntax of function prototype

returnType functionName(type1 argument1, type2 argument2, ...);

In the above example, int addNumbers(int a, int b); is the function prototype which provides the following information to the compiler:

  1. name of the function is addNumbers()
  2. return type of the function is int
  3. two arguments of type int are passed to the function

The function prototype is not needed if the user-defined function is defined before the main() function.

Calling a function

Control of the program is transferred to the user-defined function by calling it.

Syntax of function call

functionName(argument1, argument2, ...);

In the above example, the function call is made using addNumbers(n1, n2); statement inside the main() function.

Function definition

Function definition contains the block of code to perform a specific task. In our example, adding two numbers and returning it.

Syntax of function definition

returnType functionName(type1 argument1, type2 argument2, ...)
    //body of the function

When a function is called, the control of the program is transferred to the function definition. And, the compiler starts executing the codes inside the body of a function.

Passing arguments to a function

In programming, argument refers to the variable passed to the function. In the above example, two variables n1 and n2 are passed during the function call.

The parameters a and b accepts the passed arguments in the function definition. These arguments are called formal parameters of the function.

Passing arguments to a function
Passing Argument to Function

The type of arguments passed to a function and the formal parameters must match, otherwise, the compiler will throw an error.

If n1 is of char type, a also should be of char type. If n2 is of float type, variable b also should be of float type.

A function can also be called without passing an argument.

Return Statement

The return statement terminates the execution of a function and returns a value to the calling function. The program control is transferred to the calling function after the return statement.

In the above example, the value of the result variable is returned to the main function. The sum variable in the main() function is assigned this value.

Return statement of a function
Return Statement of Function

Syntax of return statement

return (expression);     

For example,

return a;
return (a+b);

The type of value returned from the function and the return type specified in the function prototype and function definition must match.

Visit this page to learn more on passing arguments and returning value from a function.

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