Java while and do...while Loop

Loop is used in programming to repeat a specific block of code. In this article, you will learn to create while and do...while loops in Java programming.

Loop is used in programming to repeat a specific block of code until certain condition is met (test expression is false).

Loops are what makes computers interesting machines. Imagine you need to print a sentence 50 times on your screen. Well, you can do it by using print statement 50 times (without using loops). How about you need to print a sentence one million times? You need to use loops.

It's just a simple example. You will learn to use while and do..while loop to write some interesting programs in this article.


Java while Loop

The syntax of while loop is:

while (testExpression) {
    // codes inside body of while loop
}

How while loop works?

The test expression inside parenthesis is a boolean expression.

If the test expression is evaluated to true,

  • statements inside the while loop are executed.
  • then, the test expression is evaluated again.

This process goes on until the test expression is evaluated to false.

If the test expression is evaluated to false,

  • while loop is terminated.

Flowchart of while Loop

Java while loop flowchart


Example 1: while Loop

// Program to print line 10 times

class Loop {
   public static void main(String[] args) {
      
      int i = 1;
	   
      while (i <= 10) {
         System.out.println("Line " + i);
         ++i;
      }
   }
}

When you run the program, the output will be:

Line 1
Line 2
Line 3
Line 4
Line 5
Line 6
Line 7
Line 8
Line 9
Line 10

Notice, ++i; statement inside the while loop. After 10 iterations, variable i will be 11. Then, the test expression i <= 10 is evaluated to false and while loop terminates.


Example 2: Java while Loop

// Program to find the sum of natural numbers from 1 to 100.

class AssignmentOperator {
   public static void main(String[] args) {
      
      int sum = 0, i = 100;
	   
      while (i != 0) {
         sum += i;     // sum = sum + i;
         --i;
      }
	   
      System.out.println("Sum = " + sum);
   }
}

When you run the program, the output will be:

Sum = 5050

Here, the variable sum is initialized to 0 and i is initialized to 100. In each iteration of while loop, variable sum is assigned sum + i, and the value of i is decreased by 1 until i is equal to 0. For better visualization,

1st iteration: sum = 0+100 = 100, i = 99
2nd iteration: sum = 100+99 = 199, i = 98
3rd iteration: sum = 199+98 = 297, i = 97
... .. ...
... .. ...
99th iteration: sum = 5047+2 = 5049, i = 1
100th iteration: sum = 5049+1 = 5050, i = 0

To learn more about test expression and how it is evaluated, visit relational and logical operators.


Java do...while Loop

The do...while loop is similar to while loop with one key difference. The body of do...while loop is executed for once before the test expression is checked.

The syntax of do..while loop is:

do {
   // codes inside body of do while loop
} while (testExpression);

How do...while loop works?

The body of do...while loop is executed once (before checking the test expression). Only then, the test expression is checked.

If the test expression is evaluated to true, codes inside the body of the loop are executed, and the test expression is evaluated again. This process goes on until the test expression is evaluated to false.

When the test expression is false, the do..while loop terminates.


Flowchart of do...while Loop

Flowchart of do while loop in Java


Example 3: do...while Loop

The program below calculates the sum of numbers entered by the user until user enters 0.

To take input from the user, Scanner object is used. Visit Java Basic Input to learn more on how to take input from the user.

import java.util.Scanner;

class Sum {
   public static void main(String[] args) {
	   
      Double number, sum = 0.0;
      Scanner input = new Scanner(System.in);

      do {
    	 System.out.print("Enter a number: ");
    	 number = input.nextDouble();
    	 sum += number;
      } while (number != 0.0);
	   
      System.out.println("Sum = " + sum);
   }
}

When you run the program, the output will be:

Enter a number: 2.5
Enter a number: 23.3
Enter a number: -4.2
Enter a number: 3.4
Enter a number: 0
Sum = 25.0

Infinite while Loop

If the test expression never evaluates to false, the body of while and do..while loop is executed infinite number of times (at least in theory). For example,

while (true) {
   // body of while loop
}

Let's take another example,


int i = 100;
while (i == 100) {
   System.out.print("Hey!");
}

The infinite do...while loop works in similar way like while loop.