Python super()

The super() builtin returns a proxy object (temporary object of the superclass) that allows us to access methods of the base class.


class Animal(object):
  def __init__(self, animal_type):
    print('Animal Type:', animal_type)
class Mammal(Animal):
  def __init__(self):

# call superclass super().__init__('Mammal')
print('Mammals give birth directly') dog = Mammal() # Output: Animal Type: Mammal # Mammals give birth directly

Use of super()

In Python, super() has two major use cases:

Example 1: super() with Single Inheritance

In the case of single inheritance, we use super() to refer to the base class.

class Mammal(object):
  def __init__(self, mammalName):
    print(mammalName, 'is a warm-blooded animal.')
class Dog(Mammal):
  def __init__(self):
    print('Dog has four legs.')
d1 = Dog()


Dog has four legs.
Dog is a warm-blooded animal.

Here, we called the __init__() method of the Mammal class (from the Dog class) using code


instead of

Mammal.__init__(self, 'Dog')

Since we do not need to specify the name of the base class when we call its members, we can easily change the base class name (if we need to).

# changing base class to CanidaeFamily
class Dog(CanidaeFamily):
  def __init__(self):
    print('Dog has four legs.')

    # no need to change this

The super() builtin returns a proxy object, a substitute object that can call methods of the base class via delegation. This is called indirection (ability to reference base object with super())

Since the indirection is computed at the runtime, we can use different base classes at different times (if we need to).

Example 2: super() with Multiple Inheritance

class Animal:
  def __init__(self, Animal):
    print(Animal, 'is an animal.');

class Mammal(Animal):
  def __init__(self, mammalName):
    print(mammalName, 'is a warm-blooded animal.')
class NonWingedMammal(Mammal):
  def __init__(self, NonWingedMammal):
    print(NonWingedMammal, "can't fly.")

class NonMarineMammal(Mammal):
  def __init__(self, NonMarineMammal):
    print(NonMarineMammal, "can't swim.")

class Dog(NonMarineMammal, NonWingedMammal):
  def __init__(self):
    print('Dog has 4 legs.');
d = Dog()
bat = NonMarineMammal('Bat')


Dog has 4 legs.
Dog can't swim.
Dog can't fly.
Dog is a warm-blooded animal.
Dog is an animal.

Bat can't swim.
Bat is a warm-blooded animal.
Bat is an animal.

Method Resolution Order (MRO)

Method Resolution Order (MRO) is the order in which methods should be inherited in the presence of multiple inheritance. You can view the MRO by using the __mro__ attribute.

>>> Dog.__mro__
(<class 'Dog'>, 
<class 'NonMarineMammal'>, 
<class 'NonWingedMammal'>, 
<class 'Mammal'>, 
<class 'Animal'>, 
<class 'object'>)

Here is how MRO works:

  • A method in the derived calls is always called before the method of the base class.
    In our example, Dog class is called before NonMarineMammal or NoneWingedMammal. These two classes are called before Mammal, which is called before Animal, and Animal class is called before the object.
  • If there are multiple parents like Dog(NonMarineMammal, NonWingedMammal), methods of NonMarineMammal is invoked first because it appears first.

To learn more about super(), visit Python's super() considered super!

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