Python super()

The super() builtin returns a proxy object that allows you to refer parent class by 'super'.

In Python, super() built-in has two major use cases:

  • Allows us to avoid using base class explicitly
  • Working with Multiple Inheritance

Example 1: super() with Single Inheritance

In case of single inheritance, it allows us to refer base class by super().

class Mammal(object):
  def __init__(self, mammalName):
    print(mammalName, 'is a warm-blooded animal.')
class Dog(Mammal):
  def __init__(self):
    print('Dog has four legs.')
d1 = Dog()

When you run the program, the output will be:

Dog has four legs.
Dog is a warm-blooded animal.

Here, we called __init__ method of the Mammal class (from the Dog class) using code.


instead of

Mammal.__init__(self, 'Dog')

Since, we do not need to specify the name of the base class if we use super(), we can easily change the base class for Dog method easily (if we need to).

# changing base class to CanidaeFamily
class Dog(CanidaeFamily):
  def __init__(self):
    print('Dog has four legs.')

    # no need to change this

The super() builtin returns a proxy object, a substitute object that has ability to call method of the base class via delegation. This is called indirection (ability to reference base object with super())

Since the indirection is computed at the runtime, we can use point to different base class at different time (if we need to).

Example 2: super() with Multiple Inheritance

class Animal:
  def __init__(self, animalName):
    print(animalName, 'is an animal.');

class Mammal(Animal):
  def __init__(self, mammalName):
    print(mammalName, 'is a warm-blooded animal.')
class NonWingedMammal(Mammal):
  def __init__(self, NonWingedMammalName):
    print(NonWingedMammalName, "can't fly.")

class NonMarineMammal(Mammal):
  def __init__(self, NonMarineMammalName):
    print(NonMarineMammalName, "can't swim.")

class Dog(NonMarineMammal, NonWingedMammal):
  def __init__(self):
    print('Dog has 4 legs.');
d = Dog()
bat = NonMarineMammal('Bat') 

When you run the program, the output will be:

Dog has 4 legs.
Dog can't swim.
Dog can't fly.
Dog is a warm-blooded animal.
Dog is an animal.

Bat can't swim.
Bat is a warm-blooded animal.
Bat is an animal.

Method Resolution Order (MRO)

It's the order in which method should be inherited in the presence of multiple inheritance. You can view the MRO by using __mro__ attribute.

>>> Dog.__mro__
(<class 'Dog'>, 
<class 'NonMarineMammal'>, 
<class 'NonWingedMammal'>, 
<class 'Mammal'>, 
<class 'Animal'>, 
<class 'object'>)

Here is how MRO is calculated in Python:

  • A method in the derived calls is always called before the method of the base class.
    In our example, Dog class is called before NonMarineMammal or NoneWingedMammal. These two classes are called before Mammal which is called before Animal, and Animal class is called before object.
  • If there are multiple parents like Dog(NonMarineMammal, NonWingedMammal), method of NonMarineMammal is invoked first because it appears first.

To learn more about super(), visit Python’s super() considered super!