JavaScript Getter and Setter

In this tutorial, you will learn about JavaScript getter and setter methods with the help of examples.

In JavaScript, there are two kinds of object properties:

  • Data properties
  • Accessor properties

Data Property

Here's an example of data property that we have been using in the previous tutorials.

const student = {

    // data property
    firstName: 'Monica';
};

Accessor Property

In JavaScript, accessor properties are methods that get or set the value of an object. For that, we use these two keywords:

  • get - to define a getter method to get the property value
  • set - to define a setter method to set the property value

JavaScript Getter

In JavaScript, getter methods are used to access the properties of an object. For example,

const student = {

    // data property
    firstName: 'Monica',
    
    // accessor property(getter)
    get getName() {
        return this.firstName;
    }
};

// accessing data property
console.log(student.firstName); // Monica

// accessing getter methods
console.log(student.getName); // Monica

// trying to access as a method
console.log(student.getName()); // error

In the above program, a getter method getName() is created to access the property of an object.

get getName() {
    return this.firstName;
}

Note: To create a getter method, the get keyword is used.

And also when accessing the value, we access the value as a property.

student.getName;

When you try to access the value as a method, an error occurs.

console.log(student.getName()); // error

JavaScript Setter

In JavaScript, setter methods are used to change the values of an object. For example,

const student = {
    firstName: 'Monica',
    
    //accessor property(setter)
    set changeName(newName) {
        this.firstName = newName;
    }
};

console.log(student.firstName); // Monica

// change(set) object property using a setter
student.changeName = 'Sarah';

console.log(student.firstName); // Sarah

In the above example, the setter method is used to change the value of an object.

set changeName(newName) {
    this.firstName = newName;
}

Note: To create a setter method, the set keyword is used.

As shown in the above program, the value of firstName is Monica.

Then the value is changed to Sarah.

student.chageName = 'Sarah';

Note: Setter must have exactly one formal parameter.


JavaScript Object.defineProperty()

In JavaScript, you can also use Object.defineProperty() method to add getters and setters. For example,

const student = {
    firstName: 'Monica'
}

// getting property
Object.defineProperty(student, "getName", {
    get : function () {
        return this.firstName;
    }
});

// setting property
Object.defineProperty(student, "changeName", {
    set : function (value) {
        this.firstName = value;
    }
});

console.log(student.firstName); // Monica

// changing the property value
student.changeName = 'Sarah';

console.log(student.firstName); // Sarah

In the above example, Object.defineProperty() is used to access and change the property of an object.

The syntax for using Object.defineProperty() is:

Object.defineProperty(obj, prop, descriptor)

The Object.defineProperty() method takes three arguments.

  • The first argument is the objectName.
  • The second argument is the name of the property.
  • The third argument is an object that describes the property.
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