JavaScript Objects

JavaScript Objects

In this tutorial, you will learn about JavaScript objects with the help of examples.

In the JavaScript data types tutorial, you learned about 7 different primitive data types. And here, you are going to learn about the eighth data-type(JavaScript object).

JavaScript object is a non-primitive data-type that allows you to store multiple collections of data.

Note: If you are familiar with other programming languages, JavaScript objects are a bit different. You do not need to create classes in order to create objects.

Here is an example of a JavaScript object.

// object
let student = {
    firstName: 'ram',
    class: 10
};

Here, student is an object that stores values such as strings and numbers.


JavaScript Declare Objects

The syntax to declare an object is:

let object_name = {
   key1: value1,
   key2: value2
}

Here, an object object_name is defined. Each member of an object is a key: value pair separated by commas and enclosed in curly braces {}.

For example,

// object creation
let person = { 
    name: 'John',
    age: 20
};
console.log(typeof person); // object

You can also define an object in a single line.

let person = { name: 'John', age: 20 };

In the above example, name and age are keys, and John and 20 are values respectively.

There are other ways to declare an object in JavaScript. To learn more, visit Different ways to declare JavaScript objects.


JavaScript Object Properties

In JavaScript, "key: value" pairs are called properties. For example,

let person = { 
    name: 'John',
    age: 20
};

Here, name: 'John' and age: 20 are properties.

Example of JavaScript object properties
JavaScript object properties

Accessing Object Properties

You can access the value of a property by using its key.

1. Using dot notation

Here's the syntax of the dot notation.

objectName.key

For example,

let person = { 
    name: 'John', 
    age: 20, 
};

// accessing property
console.log(person.name); // John

2. Using bracket notation

Here is the syntax of the bracket notation.

objectName["propertyName"]

For example,

let person = { 
    name: 'John', 
    age: 20, 
};

// accessing property
console.log(person["name"]); // John

JavaScript Nested Objects

An object can also contain another object. For example,

// nested object
let student = { 
    name: 'John', 
    age: 20,
    marks: {
        science: 70,
        math: 75
    }
}

// accessing property of student object
console.log(student.marks); // {science: 70, math: 75}

// accessing property of marks object
console.log(student.marks.science); // 70

In the above example, an object student contains an object value in the marks property.


JavaScript Object Methods

In JavaScript, an object can also contain a function. For example,

let person = {
    name: 'Sam',
    age: 30,
    // using function as a value
    greet: function() { console.log('hello') }
}

person.greet(); // hello

Here, a function is used as a value for the greet key. That's why we need to use person.greet() instead of person.greet to call the function inside the object.

A JavaScript method is a property containing a function declaration. In the next tutorial, you will learn about JavaScript Methods in detail.