SQL Operators

In this tutorial, we'll learn about the operators in SQL and how to use them with examples.

The operators are symbols (and keywords) that are used to perform operations with values.

These operators are used with SQL clauses such as: SELECT, WHERE, ON etc.

The operators in SQL can be categorized as:

  • Arithmetic operators
  • Comparison operators
  • Logical operators

SQL Arithmetic Operators

Arithmetic operators perform simple arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication etc.

Operator Description
+ Addition
- Subtraction
* Multiplication
/ Divide
% Modulo (Remainder)

Addition Operator

-- returns new column named total_amount which is 
-- 100 added to the amount field
SELECT item, amount, amount+100 AS total_amount
FROM Orders;

Subtraction Operator

-- returns new column named offer_price which is 
-- 20 subtracted to the amount field
SELECT item, amount, amount-20 AS offer_price
FROM Orders;

Multiplication Operator

-- returns new column named total_amount  which is 
-- 4 multiplied to the amount field
SELECT item, amount, amount*4 AS total_amount
FROM Orders;

Division Operator

-- returns new column named half_amount which is 
-- divided by 2 to the amount field
SELECT item, amount, amount/2 AS half_amount
FROM Orders;

Modulo (Remainder) Operator

-- returns 1 which is remainder
SELECT 10 % 3 AS result;

Comparison Operators

We can compare two values using comparison operators in SQL. These operators return either 1 (means true) or 0 (means false).

Operator Description
= Equal to
< Less than
> Greater than
<= Less than or equal to
>= Greater than or equal to
<>, != Not equal to

Equal to Operator

-- returns records where customer_id is only 4
SELECT order_id, item, amount
FROM Orders
WHERE customer_id = 4;

Less Than Operator

-- returns records where amount is less than 400 (exclusive)
SELECT order_id, item, amount
FROM Orders
WHERE amount < 400;

Greater Than Operator

-- returns records where amount is greater than 400 (exclusive)
SELECT order_id, item, amount
FROM Orders
WHERE amount > 400;

Less Than or Equal to Operator

-- returns records where amount is less than or equal to 400
SELECT order_id, item, amount
FROM Orders
WHERE amount <= 400;

Greater Than or Equal to Operator

-- returns records where amount is greater than or equal to 400
SELECT order_id, item, amount
FROM Orders
WHERE amount >= 400;

Not Equal to Operator

-- returns records where amount is not equal to 400
SELECT order_id, item, amount
FROM Orders
WHERE amount != 400;

Instead of !=, we can also use the <> symbol for not equal operations.


Logical Operators

We can use logical operators to compare multiple SQL commands. These operators return either 1 (means true) or 0 (means false).

Logical operators available in SQL are,

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